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Published: 04-10-2019

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Ozone Layer and Causes, Effects and Solutions to Ozone Depletion

Ozone layer depletion is the destruction of ozone gas of upper atmospheric layer (stratosphere), caused by substances formed from breakdown of ozone-depleting substances (ODS). The ozone layer plays an ultimately important function in absorbing ultraviolet radiation that are hazardous to living creatures on the Earth. It was until 1974, chlorine was discovered to be the catalyst which speeds up the ozone depletion.

CAUSES OF OZONE DEPLETION


All-natural Causes of Ozone Depletion: Stratospheric Clouds

The ozone hole more than Antarctica is formed by a slew of special atmospheric circumstances over the continent that combine to develop an best atmosphere for ozone destruction.

Winds over the Antarctica continent blow in a exclusive clockwise path creating a so called “polar vortex” causing the air more than Antarctica does not mix with air in the rest of the earth’s atmosphere. The chilling temperatures on the Antarctica (up to -110 F) outcome in the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC’s) which are a mixture of frozen H2O and HNO3. Due to their really cold temperatures, PSC’s type an electrostatic attraction with CFC molecules as properly as other halogenated compounds

In the Antarctic summer season, as the temperature rises, high energy photons are able to photolyze the halogenated compounds, freeing halogen radicals that then catalytically destroy O3. Simply because Antarctica is continuously surrounded by a polar vortex, radical halogens are not able to be diluted more than the entire globe. The ozone hole develops as result of this method. In March 2006, the winds circling high above the Arctic permitted close to-record amounts of ozone-destroying gases, collectively recognized as nitrogen oxides or NOx, to descend some 50km from the mesosphere to the top of Earth’s stratosphere. NOx, is a generic term for a group of highly reactive gases, all of which contain nitrogen and oxygen in varying amounts, specifically nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide(NO2). NOx destroys ozone, heating up the stratosphere by absorbing ultraviolet radiation. In addition, sturdy winds bring more nitrogen oxides down to the stratosphere.

Man-created Causes of Ozone Depletion: Ozone-depleting substances (ODS

)The primary lead to for the depletion of ozone is determined as excessive release of chlorine and bromine from man-created compounds such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), halons, CH3CCl3 (Methyl chloroform), CCl4 (Carbon tetrachloride), HCFCs (hydro-chlorofluorocarbons), HBFCs (hydro-bromofluorocarbons) and CH3Br (methyl bromide) are identified to have direct impact on the depletion of the ozone layer. These are categorized as ozone-depleting substances (ODS). Ozone-Depleting Substances have been established to be eco-friendly, really stable and non-toxic in the atmosphere under. Hence, they have gained reputation more than the years. Nonetheless, their stability allow them to float and remain static high up in the stratosphere. When up there, ODS are comfortably broken down by the powerful UV light and the resultant chemical is chlorine and bromine. Chlorine and bromine are known to deplete the ozone layer at supersonic speeds. A single chlorine molecule has the capability to break down thousands of ozone molecules.

EFFECTS OF OZONE DEPLETION

  • Damage to human well being

  • Overexposure to robust UVB light causes non-melanoma skin cancer, cataracts, sunburns, weakening of immune method and swift aging.
  • Devastation to environment

  • Many crops species are vulnerable to robust UVB radiation and overexposure may effectively lead to minimal development, photosynthesis and flowering. Hence, ozone layer depletion will result in reduction of nutrient contents and crop yield of plants.
  • Threat to marine ecosystems

  • UVB radiation kills phytoplankton, resulting in lowered survival prices for these organisms. In the aquatic meals chain, plankton appear high up. Therefore, killing of phytoplankton disrupt food chain in the marine.
  • Effect on animals

  • In domesticated animals, too much UV radiation could also lead to skin and eye cancer. It will also bring about mutations in animals.
  • Impacts certain materials

  • Supplies like plastics, wood, fabrics, rubber are massively degraded by also much ultraviolet radiation. Improve in solar UVB levels will for that reason accelerate synthetic polymers and naturally occurring biopolymers to breakdown, limiting the length of time for which they are valuable outside.

Options TO OZONE DEPLETION

  • Desist from using pesticides. Pesticides in kind of aerosol consists of CFCs, a sort of ODS, which contribute enormously to ozone layer depletion.
  • Encourage automobile-pooling. These vehicles emit a lot of greenhouse gases that ultimately kind smog, a catalyst in the depletion of ozone layer. E.g. NOx, CF
  • Promote eco-friendly car. Market cars that use hybrid engine or electro-zero emission engine. This can reduce the emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx) which contribute in ozone layer depletion.
  • Prohibit the use of damaging nitrous oxide. The Montreal Protocol formed in 1989 helped a lot in the limitation of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). However, the protocol never ever covered nitrous oxide, which is a recognized damaging chemical that can destroy the ozone layer. Nitrous oxide is nevertheless in use these days. Governments have to take action now and outlaw nitrous oxide use to decrease the rate of ozone depletion.
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