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Household food and nutrition security relies heavily on rural food production and this contributes substantially to poverty alleviation. Consequently, the first pillar of food security is sustainable production of meals it has been noted that in the early 1980s, while the population grew rapidly, meals production and agricultural incomes declined in several African nations (F.A.O. 1995.). In numerous of the countries the diminishing capacity of agriculture to offer for the household benefits in improved workload shouldered by females as men withdrew their labour from agriculture. Hence, the improved attention that is getting offered to the role of smallholder subsistence agriculture in making certain meals safety of the continent, considering that some 73% of the rural population consists of smallholder farmers (IFAD. 1993). The bulk of the poor some 3-quarters according to a current Globe Bank estimate, reside in rural regions exactly where they draw their livelihoods from agriculture and associated activities.
Evidently, development, meals safety and poverty alleviation will not be genuinely achieved without speedy agricultural growth in a sustainable manner such as food sovereignty[two]. Assisting the rural people to improve their signifies of livelihoods by way of food sovereignty and meals safety in a sustainable way posited a fantastic challenge. Agricultural input and increased output is a important element central to improved food security, earnings distribution, poverty alleviation and development in sub-Saharan Africa. All these can't be achieved with out the rural girls and they are core to the effective efforts directed to agricultural improvement in rural regions.
More than time, ladies have played crucial roles and kept their dominant position in meeting the challenges of agricultural production. These rural girls have shown substantial relevance which can not be overemphasized. The United Nations Improvement Plan (UNDP) revealed that ladies make up some 60-80 percent of agricultural labour force in sub-Saharan Africa which is dependent on regions, with two-thirds of the food generate. Nonetheless, it is typically assumed that the men make prevailing critical farm management decision and not the ladies. Sub-Saharan Africa has lot of voiceless female farmers with respect to influencing agricultural policies such policies which targets enhanced meals security and poverty alleviation nonetheless have their drawbacks with regards to food sovereignty. These policies completely ignore women’s function in each production and the general choice-producing processes inside the household (Damisa, M. & Yohanna, M. 2007.).
Their selection-creating in food production and farm practices in agriculture is characterized by the social economy status. In current times it is clearly understood that, girls are recognized to be far more involved in agricultural activities than men in sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria has about 73% of her rural women involved in cash crops, arable and vegetable gardening, even though post-harvest activities has 16% and agroforestry 15% (Abdullahi, R., undated). In some rural regions, women have taken more than around 80% of the production and processing of food crops (Afolabi, M., 2008). Estimates of women’s contribution to the production of meals crops ranges from 30% in the Sudan to 80% in the Congo (F.A.O. 1995). There are variables that oppose females participation in agricultural production, with the most typical such as socio-cultural, economical, religion and institutional activities. Dealing with such barriers against women can be quite daunting and calls for powerful advocacies, campaigns and enlightenments and promotion applications. These advocacies have been supported by lot of tiny agencies, NGOs and civil societies with continuous persistence for fairness and equality.  meals securityexists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to enough, protected and nutritious food to meet their dietary wants and meals preferences for an active and healthier life” 1996 Globe Food Summit.  Food sovereignty, asserts that the people who make, distribute, and consume food must manage the mechanisms and policies of food production and distribution, rather than the corporations and marketplace institutions dominance of the worldwide food program.
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