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Published: 09-12-2019

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BATNA is about getting an alternative that can be turned to when negotiation requires a halt. It is far more about improving the bargaining position and to measure how great a deal is. The power of BATNA affords the leverage to ask for more. If the negotiated deal doesn’t function out as per the expected outcome, BATNA notion can be followed.

BATNA can make the deal come about to the party’s advantage or make the element stroll away from the deal.

If the value of the deal proposed is lower than the reservation worth, the celebration should reject the offer and pursue BATNA. A robust BATNA assists the celebration to reject tempting provides.

BATNA comes with organizing and preparation. When the deal does not operate out as per the negotiators requirement, the following measures as outlined by Harvard must be followed.
  1. Create a list of alternatives – The negotiator must take into account the situation and develop a list of options achievable to make the deal occur to the negotiators benefit.
  2. Evaluate all the alternatives – The negotiator right after establishing the list of options ought to then evaluate all the alternatives. The negotiator must realistically estimate counterpart’s options as nicely in order to have figure out whose alternative is stronger.
  3. Choose the best option – The negotiator should select the ideal feasible alternative to settle down the agreement and to have a win-win predicament. The essential phrase here is not just the best option but alternate to a negotiated agreement. It is critical to make certain that the negotiator ought to not pre-conceive the idea of the best options and would be versatile in his alternatives and ought to not be bound by them.
  4. Calculate the lowest value deal: Soon after selecting the greatest option, the negotiator need to calculate the reservation value or the lowest valued deal willing to accept. The negotiator need to take into account what they would get it if they walk out of the deal if the lowest deal is not agreed upon.

What is BATNA generally used for?
  1. To accomplish a greater negotiated deal

  2. Batna is utilized to accomplish a better negotiated deal. When the startup is in the initial phase, purchasers typically lack trust in the firm and the item. In order to boost up sales, BATNA can be utilised by the startup organization in terms of selling goods as per buyer preferences and giving the buyers a much better deal by providing discounts.
  3. To achieve better sales target by employing BATNA

  4. In the course of the end of the monetary year, most of the style clothing brands have the stock on sale. The brands BATNA approach of obtaining a greater sales target is opted by placing the stock on sale which indirectly aids the brand to engage much more crowd by providing excellent offers and discounts and hence reaching much better sales target employing BATNA.
  5. Job Interview method

  6. Throughout the job interview method, if the candidate has the talent and the prospective and is capable enough to join the firm and has other job delivers to contemplate, in that case the employer requirements to provide greater alternatives utilizing BATNA . The employer wants to close the deal and requirements to accommodate the employee’s interest and make him join the firm at the best negotiated option package.
  7. Suppliers while selling the raw components

  8. If the raw materials sold by the supplier is in high demand, the manufacturer wants to apply the BATNA strategy in order to acquire the raw material at the greatest negotiated price so that the manufacturer can appreciate a far better profit margin and also pass it to the buyer in order to boost the sales. The manufacturer ought to be quite careful while applying the BATNA idea as failure in acquiring the agreement at the very best attainable price tag can make the manufacturer loose the supplier.
  9. Client preference

  10. When a consumer strongly prefers a company’s solution to the alternatives offered in the industry, the customers BATNA strategy is to purchase the second preference whereas the company’s BATNA Method is to offer you far better discounts, much better right after sales service in order to close the deal with the customer.


  1. DIE – Hard BARGAINING :

  2. DIE – Hard bargaining is one of the BATNA limitations. Continuous and a rigorous bargaining in the course of the meeting would make the other party uncomfortable and would make the celebration loose interest in the company due to continuous bargaining. Die difficult bargaining would make the negotiator speak much more and speak quickly and make him nervous as a result affecting his communication abilities.
  3. Powerful INNER Pressure

  4. Even although the negotiator is speaking, there is usually a sturdy pressure in the communicators mind to reach the argument. The negotiator would continuously feel about what would happen if the negotiation doesn’t work out. This limitation would influence the negotiators communication capabilities by making him fumble or be absent minded.

  6. Mental errors such as staying poised during the discussions is a limitation in BATNA. As negotiation is a approach which needs the communicator and the party to remain calm and focused, yet mental errors disrupt the negotiation flow. It creates a adverse impression about the communicator.
  7. More than-Confidence

  8. Over confidence can set negotiators up for failure. It encourages individuals to overestimate the strengths and underestimate its rivals/ Overconfidence is indeed a limitation to BATNA. Even though communicating, the negotiator may well not have a right audio tone due to over confidence which may lead in misunderstanding.

  10. When the negotiator is aggressive and doesn’t depict a calm behavior in the course of the discussion, it leads to a heated argument. Heated argument would worsen the communication as the negotiator in that case may end up speaking wrong items in aggression.

  12. Few negotiators enter into negotiators with unreasonable expectation and as a outcome it eliminates any zone of achievable agreement. Unreasonable expectations is not a sign of BATNA and the negotiator should focus on having realistic expectations.

  14. Irrational escalation is a method where the selected course of action goes beyond a point where it no longer tends to make sense. Few specialists make this error due to the fact they cannot stand loosing. A negotiator should set clear breakpoints as irrational escalation leads to miscommunication.

Distinction Between BATNA, WATNA AND ZOPA


BATNA is the greatest alternative to a negotiated agreement WATNA is the worst option to a negotiated agreement ZOPA is Zone of Achievable Agreement

BATNA is the best that the dealer can hope for if negotiations do not succeed WATNA is the worst that the dealer can worry for if negotiations don’t succeed ZOPA is the variety in which an agreement is satisfactory to each parties involved in the negotiation procedure

BATNA is about possessing an option that can be turned to when negotiation requires a halt.

WATNA is the worst that can take place if the dealer walks away from the agreement.

ZOPA exists if there is a prospective agreement that would benefit both sides more the option possibilities

BATNA deals with options WANTA deals with consequences ZOPA deals with effective outcome of the negotiation


Yes. Voice and body language plays an critical function in negotiations. Human beings communicate by means of a range of channels. It involves language, facial expressions, eye movements, physical gestures, posture, voice tones and so on. Hence physique language plays an crucial role particularly in business communication and negotiation. Researchers say that 90% of communication is nonverbal.

In organization communication, productive negotiation is not mastered by just the language expertise or bargaining capabilities, Nonverbal messages are involuntary and plays an essential part in negotiations and organization communication.

EYE Speak to:

The customs of eye contact is various in various countries. For instance, American custom demands that there must be suitable eye get in touch with amongst the speaker and the listener in the course of the communication. If the eye contact is missing, it would imply that there is worry, contempt or uneasiness in the communicator or the listener. Even when the other individual is communicating, the listener need to occasionally have a gesture or sounds like hmm, umm or nod his head to indicate his focus.

Whereas Chinese steer clear of long direct eye make contact with to show politeness or respect wile North Americans see eye speak to as a sign of honesty and a lack of eye make contact with would shift eyes as a sign of untruthfulness. The idea of eye get in touch with differs from country to nation. It plays the part of crucial communication tool. It is necessary for the negotiator to study the cultural influence of the eye make contact with.


Facial expressions is the most expressive component of the physique. Apart from the hand gestures, single most nonverbal communication is the face. It is capable of conveying numerous emotions simultaneously

Just like eye contact, facial expression plays a different function in different countries. For instance, smiles and laughter convey friendliness, affection, joy, yet in Chinese culture, for handful of instances if Chinese laugh out loud, it causes a adverse reaction by the westerns. In Japanese culture, it is acceptable to smile or laugh but not to frown or cry. Thus facial expressions plays an essential function in negotiation and it is crucial to communicate or negotiate as per the country culture.


Gestures is an expressive movement of the physique components, for instance hand movements, head movements or leg movements. As with verbal communication, nonverbal codes are not universal. Various culture has distinct interpretation of gestures. For instance, finger on your lips sound shah is a sign for silence in UK and America exactly where it signifies disapproval hissing in China. For Americans, the Chinese coming here gesture is like great bye gesture. Hence throughout negotiations, if the celebration is not effectively versed with the use of gestures in that culture, it would misunderstand the other party and send him incorrect signal. As a result it is very essential to know the cultural gesture of the country in order to keep away from miscommunications.


The impact of nonverbal communication is really strong. General things in cross cultural communication may possibly be a nonverbal act which varies from culture to culture. For instance, swinging a foot in North America throughout the meeting makes unfavorable impression, whereas crossing the legs in the course of a public meeting is regarded as to be vulgar in Arab culture. Typically standing erect, shoulders back, head held high displays confidence, energy and a good impression. On the other hand, abrupt movements, shifting seats positions might show disinterest or an unwillingness to listen.

  1. Personal

  2. BATNA principle can be implemented in the course of purchase of furnishings. Even as there are many resellers in the industry, a purchaser can get a better deal if he does a correct analysis of the product and the price at which it is accessible. In order to avail a very good deal, the purchaser need to set forth a maximum and minimum worth which is willing to get the item at. In the course of the negotiation meeting, the buyer must not do a die difficult bargaining or need to not be overconfident but should place forth his expectations about the product to the dealer and must negotiate confidently. Appropriate understanding of the solution and the marketplace costs along with very good communication and bargaining expertise will assist the buyer to implement the BATNA strategy in the appropriate way and to purchase the product at ideal negotiated cost possible.
  3. Specialist Scenario

  2. When the employee has worked for really some time in the organization and feels that he requirements a salary hike, BATNA notion can be implemented by the employee. The employee can refer the organization policies and the common salary offered and accordingly speak to the manager reflecting upon the organization polices and his operate contribution. The employee needs to be calm and confident during the conversation and must make sure that it doesn’t get converted to a heated argument.
  3. Even though Selling SECOND HAND Products

  4. When a dealer is attempting to sell the second hand items, in order to get the very best value for the solution, the dealer should adopt BATNA technique. The dealer must contemplate the current worth of the product and the marketplace cost of the product. The dealer ought to then repair up the BATNA price and propagate it to the buyer for the duration of the negotiation. The dealer need to have properly versed information about the item and pricing and need to concentrate on bargaining and negotiation expertise.
  5. JOB INTERVIEW Procedure

  6. In the course of the job interview process, if the candidate has the talent and the potential and is capable enough to join the firm and has other job offers to take into account, in that case the employer demands to offer far better alternatives using BATNA . The employer wants to close the deal and needs to accommodate the employee’s interest and make him join the firm at the ideal negotiated alternative package.
  7. By Dealers although selling consumer durables

  8. As consumer durables are typically in higher demand, the dealer needs to apply the BATNA strategy in order to sell the durables at best rice so that the dealer can take pleasure in a far better profit margin. The dealer ought to be quite cautious even though applying the BATNA notion and ought to think about the buyer preferences as well.
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