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The Role of Interior the Hotel on the Corner of Bitter and Sweet

As a historical novel, Hotel on the Corner of Bitter and Sweet[1] alludes to a lot of occurrences, individuals, areas, government acts, and organizations confirming the novel’s veracity by employing history. The book covers the period 1941-1986, a period of over forty years. For the duration of this time, Henry witnesses the tragedy of Planet War II, the tensions among Chinese and Japanese, the American and Asians. His eyes become open to racial prejudice and naked hate. The Japanese Internment highlights the tensions. At 1st, as a young pre-teen of only 12, he tiny understands the repercussions of falling in love with a Keiko, a Japanese girl. Nevertheless, time never stops them from eventually reuniting with a single one more soon after Ethel’s death. Historical accuracy is indispensable in constructing a novel exactly where the author wants to make a story realistic and therefore believable. This method is named verisimilitude, where a sturdy semblance of truth is present in the narrative. Some time references appropriately applied are the Pearl Harbor Attack (1941), Executive Order 9066 (1942), Executive Order 9102 (1942), establishment of the Republic of China (1912), and Japanese Invasion of Manchuria (1931). These allusions help in time place and establish historical veracity as Henry revisits his past and desperately clutches on to whatever remnants of individuals and issues which are dear to him.

The author, Jamie Ford, skillful weaves in historic information via conversations that the characters have among themselves, journals and newspapers, laws and acts of government, and vital events unfolding during World War II. The characters also represent distinct generations of Asian Americans, for instance Henry becoming a young boy in the 1940’s, Henry’s father who is a 1st generation Chinese immigrant, and Marty who is Henry’s descendant. Diverse from them all, Marty freely expresses himself, intends to marry a Caucasian lady, and shares liberal views which contrast sharply to the standard values that Henry espouses and cherishes. “The old Seattle landmark was a place he’d visited twice in his lifetime. Very first when he was only 12 years old way back in 1942 … the second time was nowadays. It was 1986.” (Ford three) Set mainly in Seattle, Washington, setting and place are also an important time locators for in the space of the novel (1942-1986), Ford mentions buildings, schools, and centers which are either nonetheless stand upright today or have been destroyed due to their decadent states and the toll of modernization. Hotel on the Corner of Bitter and Sweet, which these days is referred to as the Panama Hotel[two], Nippon Kan Theater, Japantown, and Camp Minidoka (1 of the Japanese internment camps), all substantiate historical claims of the novel. Seattle’s Nihonmachi or Japantown is a significant town in Seattle, Washington. Here, the love story between Henry and Keiko unfolds and shows the geographic and physical relationship between Japanese and Chinese in America.

Simply because of huge numbers of Japanese immigrants, Nihonmachi is known as Japantown in order to rival the Chinese’s Chinatown. Spot clearly depicts separation and a single sees in the novel that Henry and Keiko are separated. Henry, a Chinese, was forbidden by his parents to go to Japantown and so physical and racial boundaries are set. The Nippon Kan Theateris a theater situated in what utilized to be Japantown in Seattle, Washington, which was celebrated for its plays in advertising Japanese culture. The Nippon Kan Theater was built in 1909 and closed at the time of the Japanese internment in 1942. Early on in the story, Henry mentions that the theater was boarded up and abandoned, mourning the relocation of the Japanese away from army bases. Camp Minidoka and Camp Harmony are Japanese camp[3]s exactly where Keiko stays and where Henry visits her (Exploring Japanese American Internment). Both camps are historically precise locations and fits completely in the World War II period. Camp Harmony which was established in 1942 in Washington, housed arrested Japanese bound for internment. The Minidoka Camp or War Relocation Center in Idaho operated from 1942-1945, the final 3 years of World War II[four]. Most of the Japanese-American captives in Camp Minidoka had been imported from Washington – so it is by no stretch of the imagination that the residents of Japantown, Seattle, Washington have been apprehended and driven to Camp Minidoka. The Hotel on the Corner of Bitter and Sweet, from which the novel derives its name, is a historic hotel constructed by Sabro Ozasa, a Japanese architect. The Panama Hotel situated in Seattle, Washington, was completed in 1910 and up till 1950, sheltered and entertained many Japanese immigrants. Panama Hotel, in Henry’s second check out has been rebuilt (since1985) and is when once again open for business (Historic Panama Hotel).

Government’s acts, statutes and laws also enable the reader to classify time and confirm historic value of the novel. “Father believed in a government of the folks but was wary of who these men and women were” (Ford 68). This novel, Hotel on the Corner of the Bitter and Sweet, does not embrace a really sympathetic view of governments. The characters all have some reason to mistrust the Chinese, Japanese, or American governments. Henry explains the origins of Chinese and Japanese migration, referring to the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882[five]. This act banned Chinese immigrants from coming more than into the US, cheapening labor, and taking jobs from Americans. This exclusion act is one of the initial to openly discriminate against Asians in America. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 also opened the door to Japanese immigrants for given that Chinese workforce was prohibited in the United States, then American enterprises who, as Henry explained, necessary low cost labor got Japanese laborers to function for them. These historical details also explain in component the reason for the racial tensions and common dislike in Japanese-Chinese relations in America. America’s Anti-Miscegenation Laws[6] enforced considering that the mid-1800s also prevented interracial marriages (Anti-Miscegenation Laws). Henry himself mentions to his son, Marty who is going to marry a white lady that their union would have been impossible if they were in his day. These anti-interracial laws applied to all American minorities such as Blacks, Indians, and Asians (Asian Americans and Anti-Miscegenation Statutes).

Governmental Executive Orders[7] 9102 and 9066 worked against the Japanese-Americans during Planet War II (Robinson: By Order of the President). President Franklin Roosevelt issued the Executive Order 9102 in 1942 which instituted the War Relocation Authority which was empowered to take away all Japanese-Americans from their residences and spot them in new ‘homes’ with the aim to move them away from essential US military bases. The government feared that in the wake of the Pearl Harbor bombing of 1941 that Japanese Americans had been conspiring with the Axis force comprised of Germany, Italy, and Japan (Attack on Pearl Harbor). Due to these suspicions, Japanese-Americans had been imprisoned and then relocated from army bases. The Executive Order 9066 of 1942 was one more order commissioned by the President of the United States, Franklin Roosevelt, which in essence stripped Japanese-Americans of their rights to reside where they please and consigned them to internment camps (Ng: Japanese American Internment). It need to be noted that the NAS Seattle Airbase was in Seattle, Washington consequently the relocation operations instigated against the individuals of Japanese ancestry had been to move them from strategic military bases in light of the attack on Pearl Harbor, a key American military base (Pearl Harbor Assessment).

Organizations also offer a required crucial in determining historicity. Ford, making use of Henry, mentions in the novel the Mutual Broadcasting Program, Hokubei Jiji, the Bing Kung Association, and the Chong Wa Benevolent Association which are functional and active during Planet War II. The Mutual Broadcasting Program was a radio-based media company which from 1934 began disseminating news and entertained numerous with well-known programs such as The Adventures of Superman. Henry is a passionate fan of the Mutual Broadcasting Program since he enjoys listening to tales of his preferred character, Superman or as he calls him “the Son of Krypton.” In 1999 MBS had to end all airplay and closed its doors. Hokubei Jiji, the old newspaper, that Henry requires up and reads when he is in the basement of the Hotel, is historically precise. The Hokubei Jiji[8] or The North American Occasions existed from 1902 – 1942 and according to what Henry sees on the paper’s frontline, March 12, 1942 was actually its last issue. The location is in Seattle, Washington and this fact brings it into harmony as a trustworthy, historical novel. The journal acquired its name from the publisher who was Hokubei Jijisha. The Bing Kung Association was an organization positioned in Seattle, Washington which comprised of a network of Chinese gang members. Henry reports that his father also belongs to the Bing Kung Association. This group was notorious for a number of killings. Bing Kung is a sub-category of the Bing Kong Tongs which is headquartered in California. The Chong Wa Benevolent Association is a Chinese-American body set up because 1915 to promote the smooth networking in between Chinese at residence and abroad. It also serves as an ambassador of Chinese culture in America. China became a Republic on the January 1, 1912 which in effect ended years of imperial rule and dynasty. Henry’s father mentions the festive Chinese Republic Day[9] as a comparison to the Executive Orders written against the Japanese. This link discloses the underlying resentment of Chinese against Japanese and expresses that the Chinese community triumphed over the Japanese internment. Henry’s father informs him far more of the Chinese Republic Day and the revolutionary who lead China to republicanism, Sun Yat-sen[ten]. Being extremely nationalistic, extremely relating to all issues Chinese, Henry’s father represents the conventional Chinese immigrant with his prejudices against Japan and loyalties nevertheless tied to China. This national bigotry between each Chinese and Japanese is historic specially because during the time frame of the novel the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) is in progress (Seattle Instances).

It is difficult to shake the embattled state of the instances when reading Hotel on the Corner of the Bitter and Sweet. America and Japan are each engaged in war. In distinct, the Ameri-Japanese conflicts and tensions which culminated in Globe War II have its roots in the long Sino-Japanese Wars[11]and the Pearl Harbor bombing. “While Denny stood on the corner painting ‘Go property Japs[12]!’ more than American flags posted on windows, “I told you he was a Jap on the inside” (Ford 99). Tensions amongst America and Japan escalated when Japan, in an work to annex it to its expanding empire, was on a mission to conquer lands. Likewise Japan’s ally, Germany (Hitler and his forces) had ambitions of expanding the German empire to include all of Europe which Japan, its ally, wanted to acquire more territory and power with fresh aggression against China. Henry’s father, A Chinese-American reacts in anger as he hears about the fatal Japanese bombing. These actions did not increase the general sentiment toward Japanese in America for they now had to deal with Americans and Chinese-Americans who despised them. Even though innocent of Japan’s actions, people of Japanese ancestry had to face additional prejudice, racism, and anger due to the fact of the martial instances. They were known as a derogatory, “Japs.” Also, we clearly see that a differentiation was place among the Japanese identity and the American identity, for to be Japanese meant not getting American. Patriotism sunk to showing prejudice toward perceived frequent offenders. When Henry sympathizes with the Japanese who had been treated badly, his neighbor accuses him of getting ‘a Jap on the inside.’ In sum, time, spot, and infrastructure all play a element in authenticating the novel’s history, giving the reader ample proof that the events narrated in the story are non-fictional.

The novel, Hotel on the Corner of Bitter and Sweet permeates with elements both bitter and sweet, complete of memories and regret. Right after his wife’s death, Henry’s nostalgia gets the much better of him as he travels to old areas, rummages through old relics left by the supposed detained Japanese immigrants, and reflects poignant events in his life as a young boy living through the horrors of World War II. For Henry, history traces the past and paves the way for the future given that he has arrived to be the man he is through past circumstances and choices.

Performs Cited:

Anti-Miscegenation Laws http://www2.facinghistory.org/campus/rm.nsf//6279243C0EEE444E85257037004EA259>

Asian Americans and Anti-Miscegenation Statutes < http://academic.udayton.edu/race/01race/aspi02.htm>

Attack on Pearl Harbor <http://worldwar2history.information/Pearl-Harbor/>

Bombing of Chongqing <http://www.discoveryangtze.com/Yangtzediscovery/the_bombing_of_chongqing.htm>

Dorn, Frank. The Sino-Japanese War from Marco Polo to Pearl Harbor 1937-194. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1974

Exploring Japanese-American Internment <http://www.asianamericanmedia.org/jainternment/>

Historic Panama Hotel <http://www.panamahotelseattle.com/history.htm>

Japanese American Internment Camps < http://www.bookmice.net/darkchilde/japan/camp.html>

Ng, Wendy L. Japanese American Internment in the course of Planet War II: A History and Reference Guide. Greenwood Publishing Group, Connecticut, 2002.

Pearl Harbor Evaluation – Pearl Harbor <http://www.nsa.gov/about/cryptologic_heritage/center_crypt_history/pearl_harbor_evaluation/pearl_harbor.shtml>

Robinson, Greg. By Order of the President: FDR and the Internment of Japanese Americans. Library Congress Cataloguing in Publication Information, 2001.

Seattle Instances: Tea and Treasures (Historic Panama Hotel) <http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/pacificnw/2002/1103/cover.html>

Second Sino-Japanese War <http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Second_Sino-Japanese_War>

Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) <http://www.japan-101.com/history/sino1.htm>

Sino-Japanese Relations- Conflict Management and Resolution <http://www.silkroadstudies.org/new/docs/Silkroadpapers/2006/EricTeo%20-%20Silk%20Road%20Paper%2014%20Dec%202006final.pdf>

[1] Ford, Jamie. Hotel on the Corner of Bitter and Sweet. (New York: Random Residence Publishing Group, 2009)

[2] Takami, David A. Divided Destiny: A History of Japanese Americans in Seattle (Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1999).

[3] Inada, Lawson. Only What We Could Carry: The Japanese American Internment Knowledge (Berkeley: Heyday Books, 2000).

[4] Hanel, Rachel. Japanese American Internment: An Interactive History Adventure (Minnesota, Capstone Press, 2008)

[5] Daniels, Roger. Otis L. Graham. Debating American Immigration 1882 to present.(London: Rowman and Little Field Publishers Inc, 2001)

[six] What Comes Naturally Miscegenation Law and the Producing of Race in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009)

[7] Mc Clain, Charles. The Mass Internment of Japanese Americans and the Quest for Legal Redress (Berkeley: University of California, 2000)

[8] Soga, Keiho. Life Behind Barbed Wire: The World War II Internment Memoirs (University of Hawaii Press: 2008)

[9] The Encyclopedia Americana (Danbury, Conn: Grolier Incorporated, 1988)

[ten] Bergere, Marie-Claire. Janet Lloyd Sun Yat-sen (Stanford: Sanford University Press, 1998)

[11] Paine, S. C. M. The Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895: Perceptions, Power, Primacy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003)

[12] Herbst, Philip. The Color of Words: An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Ethnic Bias in the United States. Intercultural Press. Maine, 1997.
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