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Published: 23-11-2019

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Mitosis and Meiosis

Mitosis and meiosis are each types of cell division, however, their processes are not identical. Mitosis occurs in somatic cells (cells that are not gametes), and it produces two genetically identical daughter cells. Mitosis occurs to replace dead or broken cells or during development. Mitosis consists of 4 phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. DNA replication happens in the course of S phase which is before the mitotic phase. During prophase, the chromatin condense into chromosomes, and the mitotic spindle forms (textbook, 94). In the course of metaphase, the chromosomes line up along the middle of the cell, known as the metaphase plate. In the course of anaphase, the chromatid pairs separate, and every single half of the pair is called a chromosome. During telophase, the final stage of mitosis, the identical sets of chromosomes are at opposite poles of the cell, the chromosomes revert back to chromatin, and a nuclear envelope reforms about each group of chromatin. The division of the cytoplasm after nuclear division is known as cytokinesis (textbook, 95).

Meiosis, in contrast, occurs in gametes (sex cells), produces 4 genetically diverse daughter cells, and includes two divisions of genetic material. Meiosis is broken up into into two parts: meiosis I and meiosis II which each consist of 4 components. Meiosis I happens first right after DNA replication and consists of prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, and telophase I. Prophase I, significantly like prophase in mitosis, is when the chromosomes shorten and the mitotic spindle forms. However, in contrast to prophase in mitosis, the two genetically identical sister chromatids pair off, and crossing over happens between non sister chromatids. Crossing over is the very crucial explanation that no two people have the identical DNA. Metaphase I is quite comparable to metaphase in mitosis since the homologous pairs of chromosomes line up along the metaphase plate. In anaphase I, the homologous pairs of chromosomes are separated and pulled to opposite sides of the cell leaving the paired chromatids nevertheless collectively (textbook, 97).

Meiosis I outcomes in two genetically different haploid cells following telophase I and cytokinesis which are related to telophase and cytokinesis of mitosis. Meiosis II consists of prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, and telophase II. Prophase II is similar to prophase in mitosis, and no crossing over happens throughout prophase II. Metaphase II is when the sister chromatids line up along the metaphase plate. For the duration of anaphase II, the sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles of the cell. The final step of meiosis is telophase II and cytokinesis exactly where the nuclear envelopes reform and four, genetically diverse haploid gametes are formed as a result of the original single diploid cell (textbook, 97).
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