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Postcolonial Criticism of Sandra Cisneros’ Woman Hollering Creek
Cleofilas’ move to “the other side” in the United States carries with it the assumption that it is a excellent move since all that waits for her in the “south” is “chores that by no means [end], six very good-for-absolutely nothing brothers, and one old man’s complaints.” Even so, there is also the inference that Cleofilas is abandoning her residence in Mexico in pursuit of a far better life in the United States, which is implied when she remembers her father’s parting words: “I am your father, I will never abandon you.” The implication is that, unlike her father, she is the abandoner and will never “dream of returning” as her father “divine[s]” (43, Cisneros).
Juan Pedro Martinez Sanchez epitomizes the Mexican immigrant looking for the American Dream via endless work hours. He is “up before the rooster earning his living to spend for the meals in [Cleofila’s] belly and the roof over her head and [will] have to wake up once more early the next day.” The purpose given for this is so Juan Pedro and Cleofilia can mimic the American materialist culture and purchase the “new pickup truck,” the “new residence,” and the “new furniture” that married couples in America get. However, Juan Pedro is also portrayed as an abusive husband who physically and verbally abuses his wife, cheats on her, and then “weep[s] like a child” (48, Cisneros). In addition to this adverse portrayal of the husband, Cleofila’s brothers are described as the stereotypical “good-for-nothing”, “clumsy” Mexicans, and the father is described as obtaining “a head like a burro” (45, Cisneros). The father’s comparison to a donkey, as properly as the husband’s portrayal, reaffirms the stereotypes of Mexicans as animalistic and savage. Cisneros decision to consist of these portrayals of the Mexican characters I think has far more to do with addressing stereotypes rather than promoting them simply because Cisneros in no way really describes the father and brothers herself, but rather, leaves their description up to the hearsay of other characters. I also feel Cisneros depiction of the husband has a lot more to do with universalizing domestic hardships and breaking the stereotype of the exotic savageness of the “Latin lover.” The “telanovelas” that Cleofilas likes to watch are full of ideologies about Mexican romance. With titles like “Tu o Nadie” (“You or No One”), we get an concept of how these stereotypes and preconceived notions about Mexicans persist, even among Mexicans themselves.
The story captures the effects of Eurocentrism on the Mexican culture that had left its mark in annexed territory like Texas, which used to belong to Mexico till the Mexican-American War in the mid-1800s. The commonality of English has replaced original Spanish location names with English ones. This is evident when Cisneros writes: “The neighbor ladies, Soledad, Dolores, they might’ve identified when the name of the arroyo before it turned English but they did not know now” (47, Cisneros).
The ones who rescue Cleofilas from her abusive marriage are named Felice and Graciela. These Spanish-sounding names imply that they are of Mexican descent nonetheless, they’re disassociation with Mexican culture and tradition is identified in their dialogue. Graciela says, “Oh, and her name’s Cleofilas. I don’t know. One of these Mexican saints, I guess. A martyr or one thing. Cleofilas. C-L-E-O-F-I-L-A-S. Cle. O. Fi. Las. Create it down.” These two characters also reveal the indifference to the plight of Mexican immigrants to U.S. who are frequently not treated as equals, even by those who are meant to shield and serve, like the police. Graciela tells her pal, “Shit. You think they’re going to assist her? She doesn’t even speak English” (51, Cisneros). And even though Graciela ends the conversation with Spanish farewells, the language is quick, trite, and seemingly inadvertent as Graciela seems to right herself by saying, “bye” at the end of her Spanish. She even refers to San Antonio as “San Anto,” an Americanized version of the name that eliminates the ethnic aspects of it.
A postcolonial criticism of Cisneros’ Woman Hollering Creek reveals how stereotypes are prevalent and reinforced by Eurocentric ideologies that have permeated into the minds of the colonized lands. And while Mexico has not been totally colonized by America, the encroachment onto original Mexican territory—such as the annexation of Texas—exposes the imperialism that suppresses Mexican identity and affirms Eurocentric notions of supremacy amongst Americans and even Mexican-American immigrants themselves. Cisneros seems to portray the characters in her story in this light so as to raise awareness to the self-destructive nature of becoming colonial subjects, as properly as the self-victimization that arises from the internalizing and projection of stereotypes.
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