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Published: 04-10-2019

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Stages of Socialization

The human child comes into the world, as a biological organism with animal requirements. He is steadily moulded in society into a social getting and learns social methods of acting and feeling. No person could become the particular person and no culture could exist without it. This procedure of moulding and shaping the personality of the human infant is named “Socialization”. The human infant enters this globe as a biological organism like all other animals as a bundle of muscles, bones, essential organs and all other biological components necessary for life. At the birth, he is just a human getting. A human child can not survive unaided for at least the very first 4 or five years of life. At this stage, the newborn human baby is helpless. Not only is it physically dependent for the satisfaction of biological requirements such as hunger and protection on older members of the species but it also lacks the behaviour patterns necessary for living in human society, In order to survive, the infant has a lot to discover the skills, knowledge and accepted approaches of behaving of the society. It have to learn a way of life. This finding out in sociological terminology is named Socialization.

Man is not only social but also cultural. It is the culture that offers possibilities for man to develop the character. Development of character is not an automatic procedure Every single society prescribes its personal methods and indicates of giving social education to its newborn members so that they might create their own character. This social training is named ‘Socialization’. The approach of socialization is conditioned by culture. Socialization is a gradual method of learning. Socialization is not confined to childhood it is a lifelong procedure. It is no longer regarded as the exclusive preserve of childhood, with the primary agents becoming the family and school. Socialization signifies the child’s finding out to participate in social roles. Socialization is a life procedure, but is typically divided into two parts. Primary socialization requires spot early in life, as a child and adolescent. Secondary socialization refers to the socialization that requires place throughout one’s life, both as a kid and as a single encounters new groups that require further socialization.

Socialization is conditioned by culture. Considering that every society has its own culture the ways of the method of socialization also differ from society to society. Further the exact same culture and the identical ways of Socialization may possibly have diverse effects on the development of the personality of the members of the exact same society. As a result, a culture need necessarily produce stereotype personalities. There is scope of individuality in the procedure of Socialization. But the reality the culture puts limitations on the development of personality can not be ignored. Little of man’s behaviour is instinctive. Rather man’s behavior is learnt behaviour. Socialization means the process whereby an individual becomes a functioning member of society. Studying the rules and practices of social groups socializes the individual. This aids the group to sustain its order. By this method the person develops a personality of his personal. It is recognized that the Socialization is not simple a one approaches process in which an individual learns how to match into the society. He may possibly also redefine his roles and obligations and a outcome he impacts society. Every man tries to adjust himself to the circumstances of his atmosphere. This approach of adjustment is itself socialization. The social order is maintained largely by Socialization. Every person is born with defined capacities. Even though there might be some limits to what a man can do, this limitation can be overcome and is getting overcome by the improvement of civilization. Man’s capacity to find out may possibly be enhanced by the improvement of new techniques of instruction and incentives.

Durkheim’s theory of ‘Collective representations’ throws some light on the study of the process of socialization. In this theory of socialization Durkheim has asserted that the person be comes socialized by adopting the behaviour of his group. By ‘Collective representations’ he meant the body of experiences, tips and ideals of a group upon which the individual unconsciously depends for his concepts, attitudes and behaviour. To Durkheim, collective representations are objects or element of social values. These objects are symbol-goods and are mutually owned mutually proclaimed.

Stages of Socialization

Socialization is a gradual procedure of learning the newborn child is not believed all the things about social life at once. It proceeds from simplicity to complexity. During the early stage of life Socialization takes location inside the basic limited social planet. Progressively this social globe becomes broader and the kid is confronted with numerous items to discover and to adjust. Socialization is not confined to childhood it is a lifelong method. It is no longer regarded as the exclusive preserve of childhood, with the major agents being the family members and college. It begins at birth and continues till death. Socialization signifies the child’s studying to participate in social roles. Hence the main objects to be internalized by the youngster are the social roles themselves. In order to execute any social function adequately, one particular have to know the other social roles in the identical social system. Therefore the youngster should internalize the function that he is anticipated to perform by himself and also the roles of the other persons with whom he interacts. In fact the internalization of roles is almost the very same factor as the growth of personality. At each and every stage of Socialization the child internalizes a method of roles, not just the a single part.

Now, we shall describe briefly 4 essential stages of Socialization from infancy to old age. They are –
  1. Oral Stage.
  2. Anal Stage.
  3. Latency Stage.
  4. Adolescence Stage.
  1. Oral Stage

  2. This stage starts with the birth of the child and continues up to the completion of a single year. Before birth the child in the mother’s womb is in the foetal from and is warm and comfy. In this year of life child’s speak to with the outside globe, like its mother is channeled by means of the mouth and lips. The mother is the first parent who starts the approach of Socialization. For every thing the youngster cries a excellent deal. By means of crying the child establishes its oral dependency. The kid right here develops some definite expectations about the feeding time. The child also learns to give signals for his felt requirements. In this stage the kid is involved in himself and his mother.

    At this stage, the kid tends to make no difference among persons and things, the mother’s breast and the nipple of the bottle are equally and solely indicates of organic satisfaction. Crying, smiling and eye movement in response to other are forms of early social behaviour. The roles of the mother and the infant are merged at the stage of improvement. Sigmund Freud called this stage- the stage of “primary identification”. It implies the child merges his identity with that of the mother. The child only tries to establish some control more than the hunger drive. According to Talcot Parsons, “Child is a mean of recreation for other folks in this stage. Generally he can recognize his mother and turn into satisfied when he comes in get in touch with with his mother.
  3. Anal Stage.

  4. The second stage normally begins soon following the initial year and is completed during the third year. It is right here that the kid learns that he can not depend entirely on the mother and that he has to take some degree of care for himself. Toilet instruction is the principal focus of new concern. The kid is thought to do some tasks such a toileting, maintaining clothes clean, etc. Throughout this period the kid learns how to eat their food and talk in a polite way. The youngster develops a sense of control more than itself and its atmosphere, despite the fact that it is still dependent on its parents. He begins recognizing the household relations. Throughout this stage, the child internalizes two roles his own and that of his/her mother now can clearly separate. The child receives ‘care’ also ‘love’ from the mother and learns to give really like in return. The youngster is enabled to difference amongst right and incorrect actions. The appropriate action is rewarded and the incorrect action is not rewarded but punished. In this stage the socializing agent that is the mother plays the dual part. The dual part of the mother helps the kid to participate in a much more complex social method.
  5. Latency Stage.

  6. This stage largely starts from the fourth year of the youngster and extend up to puberty (the age of 12 or 13 years). It is in this stage the kid becomes the member of the family members as a complete. It is right here the child has to recognize himself with the social part ascribed to him on the basis of his sex. In family youngster comes to know about the status of members due to the fact now he comes to know about distinct relations like who is father, who is mother, who is uncle, grandfather, grandmother, brother, sister and so on. In the course of these years the child shifts his interest more and a lot more from the social planet of family to the group life of his/her peers. Social consciousness develops swiftly, the chief interest is in-group activities and group loyalty becomes hugely important. In this stage adequate social pressures are brought on the youngster to determine with the correct sex. Boys begin to be rewarded, for behaving like boys and girls are rewarded for acting like girls. After the age of six the kid is capable to realize the sexual difference. The boy tries to identify himself with the father and the girl with the mother. When the children go to the college or mix with other kids they prefer to join their respective playgroups. In this stage the boys makes three kinds of identification – 1. He identifies with his father and brother. two. He identifies with all his siblings. three. He identifies with the household as a member. At this stage the child learns t behave himself in different contexts of his activity, particularly when interacting with adults, besides, child also internalizes all the 4 roles of the family, for instance husband-father, wife-mother, son-brother, daughter-sister.
  7. Adolescence Stage.

  8. The fourth stage starts with the period of adolescence. Due to the psychological modifications that take place within the person this stage assumes importance. In this stage it is not achievable for parents to manage their youngsters because young children believe that they are mature sufficient and they need a lot more freedom. At the identical time they can't fully escape from their dependence on their parents. They want to be cost-free in doing different activities. But the parents continue to manage many of their activities. In the modern society the parents intend to give far more freedom to the boys and girls to do some of their activities independently. The parents try to lessen the open expression of their emotional attachment towards the adolescent kids. They encourage them to select their line of education, their occupation and their life partner. They expect the adolescent children to accept responsibility and learn new roles assigned to them.


Socialization normally refers to the procedure in which people learn the capabilities, knowledge, values, motives, and roles of the groups to which they belong or the communities in which they live. Socialization is noticed as society’s principal mechanism for influencing the improvement of character and behavior. Most sociologists treat socialization “as a cornerstone each for the upkeep of society and for the properly-getting of the individual” Each and every society prescribes its personal ways and indicates of providing social training to its newborn members so that they may develop their own character. This social training is named ‘Socialization’. Even following these stages of Socialization following marriage and right after becoming father, this method of socialization moves on that how he has to behave in new roles. But soon after these four stages the approach of Socialization is not so complicated because till this age he learns to adopt himself with the society and learns to adapt himself according to the scenario. The accomplishment of the method of socialization depends upon these stages.
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