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The Concept of Entrepreneurship
A number of theories exist, but all of them fall into one particular of five major categories
Financial entrepreneurship theories date back to the initial half of the 1700s with the work of Richard Cantillon, who introduced the thought of entrepreneurs as danger takers. The classic, neoclassical and Austrian Industry approach schools of believed all pose explanations for entrepreneurship that focus, for the most portion, on financial circumstances and the possibilities they generate. Financial theories of entrepreneurship tend to obtain significant criticism for failing to recognize the dynamic, open nature of market systems, ignoring the special nature of entrepreneurial activity and downplaying the diverse contexts in which entrepreneurship occurs.
Resource-Primarily based Theories
Resource-based theories focus on the way folks leverage diverse types of resources to get entrepreneurial efforts off the ground. Access to capital improves the possibilities of getting a new venture off the ground, but entrepreneurs often commence ventures with little ready capital. Other kinds of resources entrepreneurs may well leverage incorporate social networks and the info they give, as properly as human sources, such as education. In some instances, the intangible elements of leadership the entrepreneur adds to the mix operate as resource that a business can not replace.
Psychological theories of entrepreneurship focus on the individual and the mental or emotional components that drive entrepreneurial men and women. A theory place forward by psychologist David McClelland, a Harvard emeritus professor, gives that entrepreneurs possess a require for achievement that drives their activity. Julian Rotter, professor emeritus at the University of Connecticut, put forward a locus of manage theory. Rotter’s theory holds that men and women with a strong internal locus of handle believe their actions can influence the external planet and study suggests most entrepreneurs possess trait. A final method, although unsupported by research, suggests character traits ranging from creativity and resilience to optimism drive entrepreneurial behavior.
The sociological theory centers its explanation for entrepreneurship on the various social contexts that enable the opportunities entrepreneurs leverage. Paul D. Reynolds, a George Washington University study professor, singles out 4 such contexts: social networks, a need for a meaningful life, ethnic identification and social-political environment aspects. The anthropological model approaches the question of entrepreneurship by putting it within the context of culture and examining how cultural forces, such as social attitudes, shape both the perception of entrepreneurship and the behaviors of entrepreneurs.
Prolific organization management author, professor and corporate consultant, Peter Drucker place forward an chance-primarily based theory. Drucker contends that entrepreneurs excel at seeing and taking advantage of possibilities created by social, technological and cultural modifications. For example, where a organization that caters to senior citizens may well view a sudden influx of younger residents to a neighborhood as a prospective death stroke, an entrepreneur may possibly see it as a possibility to open a new club.
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Level: Medical School
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